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arsenal history

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arsenal history

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Arsenal F.C. returned after the Second World War with the same manager, George Allison, and some of the same players however it was apparent immediately that the magic of the 1930s had long gone. The loss of Cliff Bastin and Ted Drake to retirement seemed too great a burden to shoulder.

In fact the side flirted with relegation in the 1946/47 campaign before ending up 13th.

Allison, now in his mid-60s, decided to retire after that campaign. His assistant, Tom Whitaker, took up the reigns and had an immediate effect.

In the 1947/48 season, Arsenal won the League by seven points from Manchester United. Two years later, a brace by Reg Lewis against Liverpool would see them win the FA Cup. However, the goalscorer did not take all the plaudits.

Allison’s last major contribution at Arsenal had been to bring Joe Mercer to the club. The bandy-legged left-half would turn out to be an inspired signing. Mercer would go to make 275 appearances for Arsenal before suffering a double fracture of his leg in a collision with team-mate Joe Wade against Liverpool on April 10, 1954.

However the 1950 FA Cup Final against the Anfield side would be perhaps his finest hour for Arsenal. Mercer had not moved to London after his transfer to Highbury, instead he retained his grocer’s shop in Wallesey and commuted down for games. During the week he trained with Liverpool but naturally had to sit out certain sessions on Merseyside ahead of the Final.

Mercer galvanised Whitaker’s side into a major footballing force in the early 1950s. In 1951/52, Arsenal were in contention for a Double but ended up empty-handed.

They finished four points off champions Manchester United in the League and to lost George Robledo’s goal when they met Newcastle in the FA Cup Final. Though it might have been very different if had Wally Barnes had not picked up an early injury. These were the days when sides did not field substitutes and the full back ended up being a passenger for much of the game.

Whitaker’s side recovered to win the title the following year but by the narrowest margin in history. Arsenal and Preston finished the campaign with identical records with the London side taking the honours by 0.099 of a goal on goal average.

It would be Arsenal’s last trophy for 17 years. The team was growing old and Whitaker could not quite attract major names to the side. After his death in late 1956, the club tried a couple of stalwart players as managers – Jack Crayston and George Swindin. Neither could rekindle former glories. In fact the strongest League finish of that entire 17-year period would be Swindin’s first year when the side finished third.

The club then changed tack and, in 1962, appointed an outsider in Billy Wright. He had been a wonderful captain of Wolves and England (plus a boyhood Arsenal fan) but he had little experience in a managerial role. The side were barely also-rans under Wright however he did sign Bob Wilson, Frank McLintock and Joe Baker. The club’s youth team also won the FA Youth Cup in 1966. The seeds of the Double side were being sown.

The architect of that triumph, Bertie Mee took over from Wright the same year. The former club physio set about bringing through the likes of Pat Rice, John Radford, Ray Kennedy and Charlie George. His side would end the 60s by reaching – and losing - successive League Cup Finals. However greater glory lay ahead.Arsenal Football Club started out as Dial Square in 1886 by workers at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, south-east London, and was renamed Royal Arsenal shortly afterwards. The club was renamed again to Woolwich Arsenal F.C. after becoming a limited company in 1893. The club became the first southern member of the Football League in 1893, starting out in the Second Division, and won promotion to the First Divisionin 1904. The club's relative geographic isolation resulted in lower attendances than those of other clubs, which led to the club becoming mired in financial problems and effectively bankrupt by 1910, when they were taken over by businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall. Norris sought to move the club elsewhere, and in 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadiumin Highbury, North London; they dropped "Woolwich" from their name the following year. Arsenal only finished in fifth place in 1919, but were nevertheless elected to rejoin the First Division at the expense of local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, by reportedly dubious means.

Arsenal appointed Herbert Chapman as manager in 1925. Having already won the league twice with Huddersfield Town in 1923–24 and 1924–25 (see Seasons in English football), Chapman brought Arsenal their first period of major success. His revolutionary tactics and training, along with the signings of star players such as Alex James and Cliff Bastin, laid the foundations of the club's domination of English football in the 1930s. Under his guidance Arsenal won their first major trophies – victory in the 1930 FA Cup Final preceded two League Championships, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. In addition, Chapman was behind the 1932 renaming of the local London Underground station from "Gillespie Road" to "Arsenal", making it the only Tube station to be named specifically after a football club.

Chapman died suddenly of pneumonia in early 1934, leaving Joe Shaw and George Allison to carry on his successful work. Under their guidance, Arsenal won three more titles, in 1933–34, 1934–35 and 1937–38, and the 1936 FA Cup. As key players retired, Arsenal had started to fade by the decade's end, and then the intervention of the Second World War meant competitive professional football in England was suspended.

After the war, Arsenal enjoyed a second period of success under Allison's successor Tom Whittaker, winning the league in 1947–48 and 1952–53, and the FA Cup in 1950. Their fortunes waned thereafter; unable to attract players of the same calibre as they had in the 1930s, the club spent most of the 1950s and 1960s in trophyless mediocrity. Even former Englandcaptain Billy Wright could not bring the club any success as manager, in a stint between 1962 and 1966.

Arsenal began winning silverware again with the surprise appointment of club physiotherapist Bertie Mee as manager in 1966. After losing two League Cup finals, they won their first European trophy, the 1969–70 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. This was followed by an even greater triumph: their first League and FA Cup double in 1970–71. This marked a premature high point of the decade; the Double-winning side was soon broken up and the following decade was characterised by a series of near misses. Arsenal finished as First Division runners-up in 1972–73, lost three FA Cup finals, in 1972, 1978 and 1980, and lost the 1980 Cup Winners' Cup final on penalties. The club's only success during this time was a last-minute 3–2 victory over Manchester United in the 1979 FA Cup Final, widely regarded as a classic.

The return of former player George Graham as manager in 1986 brought a third period of glory. Arsenal won the League Cup in 1986–87, Graham's first season in charge. This was followed by a League title win in 1988–89, won with a last-minute goal in the final game of the season against fellow title challengers Liverpool. Graham's Arsenal won another title in 1990–91, losing only one match, won the FA Cup and League Cup double in 1993, and a second European trophy, the Cup Winners' Cup, in 1994. Graham's reputation was tarnished when he was found to have taken kickbacks from agent Rune Hauge for signing certain players, and he was dismissed in 1995. His replacement, Bruce Rioch, lasted for only one season, leaving the club after a dispute with the board of directors.

The club's success in the late 1990s and first decade of the 21st century owed a great deal to the 1996 appointment of Arsène Wenger as manager. Wenger brought new tactics, a new training regime and several foreign players who complemented the existing English talent. Arsenal won a second League and Cup double in 1997–98 and a third in 2001–02. In addition, the club reached the final of the 1999–2000 UEFA Cup (losing on penalties to Galatasaray), were victorious in the 2003 and 2005 FA Cups, and won the Premier League in 2003–04 without losing a single match, an achievement which earned the side the nickname "The Invincibles". The club went 49 league matches unbeaten in that season, a national record.

Arsenal finished in either first or second place in the league in eight of Wenger's first eleven seasons at the club, although on no occasion were they able to retain the title. As of March 2011, they were one of only four teams, the others being Manchester United, Blackburn Rovers andChelsea, to have won the Premier League since its formation in 1992. Arsenal had never progressed beyond the quarter-finals of theChampions League until 2005–06; in that season they became the first club from London in the competition's fifty-year history to reach the final, in which they were beaten 2–1 by Barcelona. In July 2006, they moved into the Emirates Stadium, after 93 years at Highbury.

Arsenal reached the final of the 2007 and 2011 League Cup final, losing 2-1 to Chelsea and Birmingham City repsectively. The club has not gained a major trophy since the 2005 FA Cup.

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